Revolutionizing Education through Information Communication Technology: Progress and Challenges in Rwanda
This study examined the extent of educational transformation in Rwanda through ICT focusing on progress and challenges. Based on Activity Theory, the study used quantitative and qualitative research approaches. Recorded materials including official records and reports, public, private and personal documents, were analyzed to trace documentary information on the phenomenon under study. The findings show that programmes, projects, plans and policies to promote ICT infrastructure, hard and soft, in education were put in place. However, given the achievements registered in infrastructure, access, awareness and skills, this integration is still far from being at its fullest. Discrepancies in access, awareness and skills were registered between rural and urban areas, among levels of education and among different clusters of end users. Indeed, the ICT tool-end user ratio is still very high at all levels of education. It was recommended that enough funds be allocated to ICT infrastructure and literacy in an equitable way to allow equal chances of access and awareness for all education end users, that is urban as well as far-flung areas, women and men, young and old and all levels of education. Furthermore, the provision of ICT tools should be accompanied with adequate funds for maintenance and replacement. Government paid technicians should be availed to educational institutions. The government should also learn from the experiences of countries where ICT in education has succeeded remarkably.
Keywords: Information Communication Technology, ICT Integration, ICT in education, Integration progress, Challenges, Rwanda.