Category Archives: Abstract

Abstract

Background

During the last decades, a great interest was given to viral etiology of breast cancer. Indeed, due to recent technical improvements and some encouraging new results, it has been a resurgence of interest in the possibility that a substantial proportion of human breast cancers may be caused by viral infections. High-risk genotypes of human papillomavirus (HPV) have been found in breast cancer cases. In the present study, we aimed to assess the presence of HPV DNA in breast cancer cases from Rwanda and to evaluate the association between HPV infection and clinico-pathological features.

Methods

Therefore, a total of 47 archived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded biopsies were collected and complete information was recorded. HPV detection and genotyping were done by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing.

Results

Overall, HPV DNA was found in 46.81% of cases, HPV16 being the most prevalent subtype (77.27%) followed by HPV33 (13.64%) and HPV31 (9.09%). Comparison of HPV with clinico-pathological features showed no significant difference between HPV infection and breast localization, histological subtype, clinical stage, tumor grade, and intrinsic molecular subtypes.

Conclusions

These findings provide evidence of high prevalence of high-risk HPV in Rwandese patients with breast cancer and suggest that high-risk HPV infections could be a risk factor associated with human breast cancer development.

Keywords

DNA Human papillomavirus Breast cancer Rwanda 

Abstract

Background

Glutathione peroxidase 1 gene (GPX1) is one of the antioxidant enzyme that remove the reactive oxygen species in a continuous process. Since the identification of a well‐characterized functional polymorphism named p.Pro198Leu (rs1050450 C>T) in GPX1 gene, abundant studies have evaluated the association between p.Pro198Leu polymorphism and tumor risk in diverse population. But, the available results related to breast cancer are conflicting and absent in Africa. The present case–control study was planned to assess the presence of GPX1 Pro198Leu polymorphism in Rwanda population to determine whether it is associated with the risk of developing breast cancer.

Methods

Genomic DNA from peripheral blood leukocytes of 41 patients with breast cancer and 42 healthy controls were enrolled and genotyped GPX1 Pro198Leu polymorphism by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing.

Results

No significant difference in the frequencies of Pro/Pro (49%) and Pro/Leu (51%) genotypes in cancer cases and in controls (50% each) were found. The allelic frequencies of Pro and Leu were 74% versus 26% and 75% versus 25% in breast cancer cases and controls respectively. No association was observed in allele frequencies of Pro and Leu, and familial history. Only an overall association of GPX1 Pro198Leu with grade of cancer (Pro/Leu vs. Pro/Pro: = .0200) was detected.

Conclusion

The result of this study suggested that GPX1 Pro198Leu polymorphism could not be a risk factor for breast cancer in Rwanda. However, large‐scale studies on the effect of this polymorphism on the factors disturbing the redox homeostasis are needed for conclusive understanding.

Abstract

Revolutionizing Education through Information Communication Technology: Progress and Challenges in Rwanda

Abstract

This study examined the extent of educational transformation in Rwanda through ICT focusing on progress and challenges. Based on Activity Theory, the study used quantitative and qualitative research approaches. Recorded materials including official records and reports, public, private and personal documents, were analyzed to trace documentary information on the phenomenon under study. The findings show that programmes, projects, plans and policies to promote ICT infrastructure, hard and soft, in education were put in place. However, given the achievements registered in infrastructure, access, awareness and skills, this integration is still far from being at its fullest. Discrepancies in access, awareness and skills were registered between rural and urban areas, among levels of education and among different clusters of end users. Indeed, the ICT tool-end user ratio is still very high at all levels of education. It was recommended that enough funds be allocated to ICT infrastructure and literacy in an equitable way to allow equal chances of access and awareness for all education end users, that is urban as well as far-flung areas, women and men, young and old and all levels of education. Furthermore, the provision of ICT tools should be accompanied with adequate funds for maintenance and replacement. Government paid technicians should be availed to educational institutions. The government should also learn from the experiences of countries where ICT in education has succeeded remarkably.

Keywords: Information Communication Technology, ICT Integration, ICT in education, Integration progress, Challenges, Rwanda.